Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Startup Phases for X86 Windows Systems

Troubleshooting Startup

Startup Phases for x86-based Systems

The Windows XP Professional startup process closely resembles that of Microsoft® Windows NT® version 4.0 and Microsoft® Windows® 2000, but significantly differs from Microsoft® MSDOS®, Microsoft® Windows® 95, Microsoft® Windows® 98, and Microsoft® Windows® Millennium Edition (Windows Me).

All computers running Windows XP Professional share the same startup sequence:

Power-on self test (POST) phase

Initial startup phase

Boot loader phase

Detect and configure hardware phase

Kernel loading phase

Logon phase

The preceding startup sequence applies to systems started or restarted after a normal shutdown, and does not apply when you bring your computer out of hibernation or standby.


Cable Modem Termination System by MotorolaImage via Wikipedia
Network Cable Types
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Sunday, May 9, 2010

Installing a Second IDE Hard Drive

Motherboard Form Factors and Components

Motherboard Components

Expansion Buses, IRQs, DMAs, Ultra DMA, Bus Mastering

Expansion Buses

RAID and SCSI drives

Two SCSI connectors.Image via Wikipedia

Linux High Performance SCSI and RAID

How the Bubble/InkJet Printer Works

How a Laser Printer Works

Cleaning - The Rubber Blade removes any excess toner that drops into the debris cavity. The eraser lamp removes any excess charge off the photosensitive drum. This leaves the drum with a charge of 0 Volts.

Conditioning - The primary cornea (High Voltage Wire) adds a negative charge of around -600 volts to - 1000 volts.

Writing - The laser light hits the photosensitive drum, and dissipates the negative charge to the centre of the drum which is grounded. This leaves sections of the drum with a voltage of -100 volts.

Developing - The drum rolls through a supply of negativly charged toner particles (Particles are -200 Volts to -500 Volts).

Where the drum hasn’t been touched by the laser light, a lower negative charge is still there, so the particles are not attracted to this section of the photosensitive drum.

Transfer - A strong positive charge is applied the the paper, the particles of toner are attracted to the paper.

Fusing - The toner that is on the paper is heated and pressurixed, the toner becomes bonded to the paper.

The Toner Cartridge (or EP-Electro-Photographic) contains the photosensitive drum, Cleaning blade, and primary corona wire. The transfer corona wire is located on the printer itself.

Typical Maintenance kit includes:

Paper pickup rollers


Transfer Roller